Disability pension is paid to a person who is unable to earn an income because of an illness or disability. Disability pension is one of the benefits in both the national pension scheme and the earnings-related pension scheme.
Disability pension substitutes the loss of income caused by long-term incapacity for work. The pension may be
- a disability pension granted until further notice or a temporary rehabilitation subsidy (=fixed-term disability pension)
- in the earnings-related pension scheme, also a partial disability pension or partial rehabilitation subsidy
Disability pension becomes old-age pension when the person reaches the retirement age for old-age pension.
How is disability pension determined?
In disability pensions under the earnings-related pension insurance scheme, the earnings before the disability and the future time period between the onset of the pension and retirement are taken into account. As a rule, the earnings for this future time period are determined on the basis of the last five calendar years before the start of the disability pension.
Disability pension is paid in the national pension scheme if the person does not receive any other pension or the other pension is small. The amount of the pension also depends on how long the person has lived in Finland.
A person receiving disability pension may also receive a guarantee pension.
Applications for disability pension should be addressed to Kela or the earnings-related pension provider
All pensions must be applied for. Applications for disability pension in the national pension scheme should be addressed to Kela and applications for disability pension in the earnings-related pension scheme to the earnings-related pension provider. Both pensions can be applied for simultaneously with the same application form.
Pension decisions can be appealed to an appeal board
The pension decision includes information on how it can be appealed. Earnings-related pensions can be appealed to the Pension Appeal Board. National pensions and guarantee pensions can be appealed to the Social Security Appeal Board.
The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health does not handle appeals or complaints.