National pension can be paid to a person covered by the Finnish social security system, who does not receive any earnings-related pension or whose earnings-related pension is small.
Provisions on national pension are laid down in legislation.
- National Pensions Act 568/2007 (Finlex) (in Finnish)
Guarantee pension secures a minimum pension for persons on a low income.
Who gets a national pension?
Pensions in the national pension scheme are paid in the following way:
- old-age pension to persons born before 1965 when they reach the age of 65 and to persons who were born in 1965 or after that when they reach their personal retirement age in accordance with the acts on earnings-related pension
- early old-age pension to persons born before 1962
- disability pension to persons who have reached the age of 16
- survivors’ pension to the widow and children.
The national pension decreases when the earnings-related pension and other compensations affecting it increase. The amount of the pension is also affected by how long the person has lived in Finland between the ages of 16 and 65.
The amount of the national pension is also affected by the person’s family relationships. The pension is slightly larger for a person living alone than for a person who lives in a registered relationship or is married. A person receiving national pension may also be entitled to a child supplement.
Entitlement to old-age pension begins at the age of 65
The lowest retirement age for old-age pension in the national pension insurance scheme is 65 years for those born before 1965. For those born in 1965 and after that, the lowest age is the same as the personal retirement age in accordance with the acts on earnings-related pension. The application for old-age pension can be postponed, in which case the pension will increase.
Persons born before 1962 can receive early old-age pension. Each month that is brought forward will permanently reduce the pension.
Applications for national pension should be addressed to Kela
All pensions must be applied for. Applications for national pension should be addressed to Kela.
Decisions on national pension can be appealed to the Social Security Appeal Board
The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health does not handle appeals or complaints.
The pension decision includes information on how to appeal the decision. National pensions can be appealed to the Social Security Appeal Board.